Nemanja Todorović, Jog Raj and Marko Vasiljević
PATENT CO, DOO., Vlade Ćetkovića 1A, Mišićevo 24211, Serbia
World fish production has experienced incredible, growth in just a few decades.
In almost five decades, the worldwide per capita consumption of seafood (fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other aquatic animals except mammals) has more than doubled, from 9.0 kg in 1961 to 20.2 kg in 2015.
Aquaculture has, in fact, been growing and continues to grow faster than any other major food production sector, at an average annual rate of 5.8% (2000–2016)1.
To keep fish industry sustainable, it is necessary to find an alternative to the basic ingredients to produce fish food, fish oil and fishmeal.
The aim of the fish feed production is the replacement of fishmeal with less expensive sources of protein, usually of plant origin.
⇰ A low level of fibers, carbohydrates and indigestible antinutrients, high protein level, good amino acid profile, high digestibility, and good palatability are appropriate characteristics of good plant ingredients in fish feed2,3.
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by various types of fungi that can be found in a variety of plant feedstuffs such as corn, soybean meal, peas, rice bran, wheat, barley, and other commercially available crop by-products (DDGS).
⇰ The production of these metabolites can take place before and after harvest, during transport, as well as during storage of raw material and fish feed.
In general, research shows that contamination of fish feed with mycotoxins is a significant and widespread problem in aquaculture around the world, both economically and health-wise.
⇰ Mycotoxins-contaminated fish feed is a widespread problem, especially in tropical regions and developing countries where fish feeds are often made by the farmers themselves under inappropriate conditions with improper milling and/or storage.