Multiple mycotoxins detected in
corn, soya and sorghum samples from Bolivia, Columbia, Argentina and Chile

The aim of the present study was to analyze corn, soya, and sorghum samples for mycotoxins from Chile, Colombia, Argentina, and Bolivia.

Jog Raj*, Catalina Nicholls, Alexandro Marchioro and Marko Vasiljević

PATENT CO, DOO., Vlade Ćetkovića 1A, 24 211, Mišićevo, Serbia
*Corresponding author: jog.raj@patent-co.com

This mycotoxins survey was conducted between January and June 2021.

In Colombia and Bolivia this analysis was performed with REVEL Q+MAX kits and in Argentina and Chile REVEL Q+ kits (Neogen) were used for analysis of mycotoxins from these samples.

The samples were analyzed for:

  • Total aflatoxins
  • Total fumonisins
  • Deoxynivalenol (DON)
  • Zearalenone (ZEN)
  • T-2 toxin

The results of this survey are presented as below.

The average of each mycotoxin detected (ppb) in the corn samples from Argentina is shown in Table 1.

  • Fumonisins and DON were the predominant mycotoxins detected with a high average contamination level found.
  • Aflatoxins, ZEN, and T-2 were found to be present at lower average contamination levels.
  • Aflatoxins, fumonisins, DON, ZEN, and T-2 toxin were detected in all (100%) corn samples.
All the corn samples (100%) from Argentina had more than 1 mycotoxin per sample. Therefore, corn samples from Argentina had co-occurrence of more than one mycotoxin.

Table 1. Average of mycotoxins (ppb) detected in corn samples from Argentina.

Table 2 shows the average of each mycotoxin detected (ppb) in the corn samples from Chile.

  • Fumonisins were the predominant mycotoxins detected whereas aflatoxins, DON, ZEN, and T-2 were found to be present at lower average contamination levels.
  • All the corn samples had aflatoxins, DON and Fumonisins, but only 73% samples had ZEN and 80% samples had T-2 toxin.
All the corn samples (100%) from Chile, had more than 1 mycotoxin. Therefore, corn samples from Chile had co-occurrence of more than one mycotoxin.

Table 2. Average of mycotoxins (ppb) detected in corn samples from Chile.

Table 3 shows the average of each mycotoxin detected (ppb) in the corn and sorghum samples from Bolivia.

  • Fumonisins were the predominant mycotoxins detected in corn, with a high average contamination level found.
  • Aflatoxins and ZEN were found to be present at lower average contamination levels, whereas T-2 was only detected in sorghum samples and DON was not detected at all in any of the samples.
  • Aflatoxins were present in 67% samples, fumonisins and ZEN were only present in 33 % corn samples.
  • In sorghum samples 50% had aflatoxins and 25% had fumonisins, ZEN and T-2.

Table 3. Average of mycotoxins (ppb) detected in corn and sorghum samples from Bolivia.

As per Figure 1, all the samples of corn and 100% sorghum (100%) from Bolivia demonstrated the cooccurrence of mycotoxins as samples had more than 1 mycotoxin.

Figure 1. Number of mycotoxins per corn sample from Bolivia.

Table 4 shows the average of each mycotoxin detected (ppb) in the corn samples from Colombia.

  • Fumonisins, aflatoxins, ZEN, and DON were the predominant mycotoxins detected with low contamination level found.
  • Aflatoxins were present in 22% samples, fumonisins in 100 %, whereas DON and ZEN were detected in 78% corn samples.

Table 4. Average of mycotoxins (ppb) detected in corn samples from Colombia.

Table 5 shows the average of each mycotoxin detected (ppb) in the soya samples from Columbia.

  • Fumonisins, ZEN and aflatoxins were the predominant mycotoxins detected in the soya samples.
  • Aflatoxins were present only in 7% soya samples whereas 100% samples contained fumonisins and ZEN.
  • DON and T-2 toxin were not detected in soya samples from Colombia.

Table 5. Average of mycotoxins (ppb) detected in soya samples from Colombia.

All the samples of corn and soya from Colombia had more than 1 mycotoxins, so cooccurrence of mycotoxins was detected in all the samples.

Figure 2. Number of mycotoxins per sample from Colombia.

CONCLUSIONS

In this mycotoxins survey, corn, soya, and sorghum samples from Chile, Colombia, Argentina, and Bolivia were analyzed for mycotoxins using Neogen kits.

The analysis showed that the samples of corn, sorghum and soya had cooccurrence of more than one mycotoxin in all the nations.

There are no safe limits for cooccurrence of mycotoxins and, therefore, the use of appropriate mycotoxin binders is recommended to reduce the effect of these mycotoxins in animals and to reduce carryover of these mycotoxins from animals to humans. 

This survey has clearly demonstrated that from season to season, crops can be contaminated with mycotoxins and, therefore, regular monitoring of raw materials intended for animals’ consumption becomes indispensable.



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