Multiple mycotoxins detected in corn samples received from five continentsbetween October 2018 and March 2019

Mycotoxins are the biggest challenge for animal feed producers and therefore, regular monitoring of mycotoxins is necessary

Jog Raj, Hunor Farkaš, Zdenka Jakovčević, Jasna Bošnjak-Neumüller and Marko Vasiljević

PATENT CO., Mišićevo, Serbia

Aim

The aim of the present study was to screen corn samples for mycotoxins, received from different countries (five continents) between October 2018 and March 2019.

Materials

These corn samples were collected by our customers or distributors in different countries.

The corn samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS triple quad (Agilent 6460 series) based multi-mycotoxin method for quantitation of all mycotoxins (Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2, G1 and G2, Ochratoxin A (OTA), Zearalenone (ZON), Deoxynivalenol (DON), FB1&B2, T-2 & HT-2 toxins) regulated in EU in feed by EU Directive 2002/32/EC, 2006/576/EC and 2013/165/EU:

  • ⇰ Aflatoxins: AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 y AFG2
  • ⇰ Ochratoxin A (OTA)
  • ⇰ Zearalenone (ZON)
  • ⇰ Deoxynivalenol (DON)
  • ⇰ FB1 & FB2
  • ⇰ Toxins T-2 & HT-2

Results

  • 🔎 A total of 400 samples were received for analysis at PATENT CO.
  • 🔎 More than 95% of the samples were found contaminated with one or more mycotoxins

 

The summary of mycotoxins analysis as per continent is as below:



ASIA



98 % of the corn samples received from India, Pakistan, Vietnam, Taiwan and Thailand were found contaminated with one or more mycotoxins (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Number (%) of mycotoxins per sample.

Table 1. Mycotoxins levels detected (ppb) in corn samples from Asia

DON, AFB1, FB1, FB2, T-2, OTA and ZON with an average of 300 ppb, 18 ppb, 1.701 ppb, 452 ppb, 19 ppb, 2 ppb and 81 ppb, respectively, were among the main mycotoxins detected (Table 1) in corn samples from Asia.

The median for FB1 was 1.019 ppb, FB2 was 258 ppb and for DON median was recorded at 367 ppb.

FB1 and FB2 were detected in the 94% of corn samples, while AFB1, ZON and DON, 72%, 26% and 10% of the samples, respectively (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Percentage of mycotoxins detected

These results demonstrate that Fusarium mycotoxins (FB1, FB2, DON, ZON) and Aflatoxins were detected in 98% of corn samples tested using LC-MS/MS.



EUROPE




The corn samples were collected and delivered from Russia, France, Croatia and Balkan countries. 90% of these corn samples were found contaminated with one or more mycotoxins (Figure 3).

Figure 3. Number (%) of mycotoxins per sample.

Table 2. Mycotoxins levels detected (ppb) in corn samples from Europe

DON, AFB1, FB1, FB2, T-2, OTA and ZON with an average of 269 ppb, 19 ppb, 1.073 ppb, 335 ppb, 97 ppb, 105 ppb and 43 ppb, respectively, were among the main mycotoxins detected (Table 2).

The median for FB1 was 314 ppb, FB2 was 131 ppb and for DON median was recorded at 178 ppb.

By using LC-MS/MS, the following mycotoxins were detected in the samples (Figure 4):

  • ⇰ FB1 in 67% of the samples
  • ⇰ FB2 in 53% of the samples
  • ⇰ DON in 33% of the samples
  • ⇰ ZON and T-2 in 25% of the samples
  • ⇰ OTA in 20% of the samples
  • ⇰ AFB1 in 4% of the samples

Figure 4. Percentage of mycotoxins detected

Therefore, these results demonstrate that Fusarium mycotoxins (FB1, FB2, DON, ZON) and Ochratoxin A were mostly detected in the corn harvested in 2018 from European countries.



AFRICA




The lab received corn samples from Uganda, Kenya, South Africa and Egypt. 98% of these corn samples were found contaminated with one or more mycotoxins (Figure 5).

Figure 5. Number (%) of mycotoxins per sample.

Table 3. Mycotoxins levels detected (ppb) in corn samples from Africa

DON, AFB1, FB1, FB2, OTA and ZON with an average of 405 ppb, 11 ppb, 465 ppb, 196 ppb, 8 ppb and 77 ppb were among the main mycotoxins detected (Table 3).

FB1 with 232 ppb median, FB2 with 124 ppb and DON with 247 ppb median were detected in corn samples.

Through LC-MS/MS, the following mycotoxins were detected in the samples of corn that were analyzed (Figure 6):

  • ⇰ DON in 84% of the samples
  • ⇰ FB1 in 46% of the samples
  • ⇰ FB2 in 32% of the samples
  • ⇰ AFB1 in 8% of the samples
  • ⇰ ZON in 30% of the samples
  • ⇰ OTA in 11% of the samples

Figure 6. Percentage of mycotoxins detected

These findings demonstrate that Fusarium mycotoxins (FB1, DON, FB2, ZON) were present in most of the corn samples tested for mycotoxins using LC-MS/MS.



NORTH & SOUTH AMERICA



The lab also received corn samples from USA, Mexico, Chile, Brazil and Argentina. 99% of these corn samples were found contaminated with one or more mycotoxins (Figure 7)

Figure 7. Number (%) of mycotoxins per sample

Table 4. Mycotoxins levels detected (ppb) in corn samples from North and South America

DON, AFB1, FB1, FB2, T-2, OTA and ZON with an average of 505 ppb, 1 ppb, 1.609 ppb, 460 ppb, 15 ppb, 2 ppb and 139 ppb were among the main mycotoxins detected, respectively (Table 4).

FB1 with 736 ppb median, FB2 with 190 ppb, ZON with 95 ppb and DON with 463 ppb median were detected in corn samples using LC-MS/MS.

Mediante LC-MS/MS se detectaron las siguientes micotoxinas en las muestras (Figura 8):

  • ⇰ DON in 22% of the samples
  • ⇰ FB1 in 80% of the samples
  • ⇰ FB2 in 99% of the samples
  • ⇰ AFB1 in 8% of the samples
  • ⇰ ZON in 21% of the samples
  • ⇰ OTA in 3% of the samples
  • ⇰ T-2 in 6% of the samples

Figure 8. Percentage of mycotoxins detected

Analysis of these results show that Fusarium mycotoxins remained in high percentage in the tested corn samples using LC-MS/MS

 

OVERALL CONCLUSIONS


This survey concludes that corn harvested around the world in 2018 is mostly contaminated with Fumonisins.

In more than 400 samples analyzed worldwide, Fumonisins were present in most of the samples (78%) with a median of 668 ppb and a total of 95% corn samples were found contaminated with one or more mycotoxins.

Other than Fumonisins, DON in 30%, AFB1 26%, ZON in 21% and OTA in 11 % samples were also detected.

  • 🔎 Field mycotoxins such as Fumonisins, DON and ZON were the most commonly detected in corn samples received from North and South America, Africa and Europe.
  • 🔎 Fumonisins and AFB1 were predominant in Asia.

From this mycotoxin survey, mycotoxins remain a topic of concern in animal feed and multi-mycotoxin occurrence continues to be a threat. Constant monitoring and research on the prevention and or remediation of mycotoxin contamination is therefore necessary



Micotoxicosis prevention
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