Remediation of toxins in the food chain using a novel mycotoxin detoxifying agent (MMDA)


The main toxins contaminating feed materials are mycotoxins, endotoxins, and algal toxins.

  • The main mycotoxins affecting animal production are aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol (DON).
  • Bacterial endotoxins are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria that are released when cells are lysed (LPS-lipopolysaccharides).
  • Algal toxins are produced by algae in the ocean and in freshwater.

There is a critical need for a feed additive that can bind mycotoxins, endotoxins, and algal toxins in the animal gut.

In this study, the toxin adsorption and biotransformation capacity of a multicomponent mycotoxin detoxifying agent (MMDA – MycoRaid) was tested using LC-MS/MS.


In this study, MycoRaid (MMDA) was tested for adsorption and biotransformation of the main toxins using LC-MS/MS.

Mycotoxin and algal toxin detoxification

For mycotoxin and algal toxin detoxification efficacy, 100 mg of adsorbent was put into a 15 ml Falcon tube.

To this, 10 ml of 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 3.0 and a solution containing 2 ppm of each toxin were added. Controls with and without toxins were prepared.

The tubes were incubated on a rotary shaker for 60 min at 37°C and centrifuged at 4,500 rpm for 5 min. Afterward, the supernatant was analysed by LC-MS/MS.

Endotoxin detoxification

For endotoxin detoxification efficacy, endotoxins from each bacterial source (1 ng/ ml) were incubated with the 10 mg/ml of the binder in pH 6.5 buffer for 1 h at 37°C.

The tubes were centrifuged and the endotoxin concentration in the supernatant was determined by the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay.

The results were expressed as LPS binding capacity (%).




The in vitro efficacy showed the net adsorption potential with an excellent removal of the toxins:

  • 99,7% AFB1
  • 89,5% ZEN
  • 95,3 FB1
  • 98,7% OTA
  • 75,7% T-2 toxin
  • 93,5% citrinin
  • 98,8% ergot alkaloids
  • 98% Pseudomonas endotoxins
  • 92% E. coli endotoxins
  • 74% Salmonella endotoxins
  • 81% saxitoxin (algal toxin)

These results show that the application of MMDA (MycoRaid) in feed can act as an effective solution for the removal of these toxins from the feed and, ultimately, the food chain.


Jog Raj, H. Farkaš, Z. Jakovčević, S. Ćujić, J. Bošnjak-Neumüller and M. Vasiljević
Corresponding author: [email protected]
WMF meets ITALY, 16-18 May 2022, Parma, Italy

Micotoxicosis prevention
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