Mycotoxins in Raw materials
Rye

Description
The Rye (Secale Cereale) is an annual monocotyledonous plant belonging to the grass family that is grown for its grain or as a fodder plant.
Rye is a member of the wheat family, although with lower energy content, and is closely related to barley.
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Cultivated
Rye grows primarily in eastern, central and northern Europe: north of Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia and towards central and northern Russia.
It also thrives in North America: Canada, United States; South America: Argentina, Brazil; Asia: Turkey, Kazakhstan, and north of China.
Used in
It is used in low inclusion percentage in ruminants, horses and pigs.
Use of Rye has certain disadvantages:
  • Low palatability
  • Contains Pentosans that interfere with digestion Rye is easily contaminated with Claviceps Purpurea.
  • Fresh and humid climate in which Rye flourishes is also very favorable for the growth of this fungus, also called ergot.
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Mycotoxins
Mycotoxins found mainly in Rye.
The toxins produced by ergot are alkaloids, of which the most important are ergotamine, ergometrine, ergocristine, ergosine, ergocryptinine (which is a mixture of α and β isomers), ergocornin, and epimers.
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Levels
Authorized levels of mycotoxins
There is a legal limit for the presence of ergot alkaloids (Claviceps Purpurea) in feed, which is regulated by the Commission Regulation (EU) No. 574/2011.
Raw materials and compound feed containing unground cereals. Limit: 1000ppm
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