Clinical and patho-anatomical effects
of mycotoxins in animals

We explore with R. K. Asrani and Rakesh Kumar from CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University the clinical and anatomopathological manifestations of exposure to the major mycotoxins found contaminating raw materials and feed.

R. K. Asrani y Rakesh Kumar

Department of Veterinary Pathology, Dr G C Negi College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, CSK Himachal Pradesh Agricultural University, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India

Mycotoxins are secondary harmful mold metabolites that produce significant detrimental health effects in human beings and animals1. These are low molecular weight compounds known to be harmful even at low concentrations2.

Approximately 25% of the crops, including cereal grains and nuts, are often presumed to be contaminated with fungus3.

The most frequently encountered harmful mycotoxins in foodstuffs and feed include aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA), trichothecenes, HT-2 and T-2 toxins, fumonisin B1 (FB1), citrinin (CTN), zearalenone (ZEN) and ergot alkaloids.

A predominately marked distribution of fumonisins, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol (DON) is documented globally4.

Cereal crops may become contaminated in the field or during harvesting, transport, processing or storage5,6. The rate of contamination of crops with fungus is more frequently triggered by the rainy season7.

Factors facilitating the production of mycotoxins in contaminated products include8:

  • Moisture content (20-25%)
  • Environmental temperature (22-30ºC)
  • Composition of food items
  • Relative air humidity (70-90%)
  • Physical damage to cereals by pests
  • pH
  • Presence of mold spores

Figure 1. Mycotoxins production and their occurrence in the food chain.

Common routes of entry of mycotoxins into the body are:

Direct consumption of contaminated products of plant origin (cereals, nuts, bread etc.) and products obtained from animals (meat and meat products, milk, offal’s, fermented sausages etc.)9,10.

Dermal contact and inhalation are not very common routes but can act as a potential mode of entry into the body11.

Harmful toxic effects of mycotoxins depend on11,12:

  • Type of mycotoxin
  • Dose introduced into the body
  • Duration of exposure to the mycotoxins

Mycotoxins are known to produce several harmful effects in animals and human beings. Classification of these toxins can be made on the basis of toxicity13 and clinical symptoms related to the organs damaged14.

Figure 2. Classification of mycotoxins on the basis of toxicity.

Figure 3. Classification of mycotoxins on the basis of clinical manifestations.

Table 1. Summary of different Mycotoxins with their toxic effects.

Effects of AFLATOXINS exposure

Episodes of aflatoxicosis are associated with the production of aflatoxins by common fungal species such as Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in contaminated food products33.

In 1960, in the UK, the first report of mortality caused by aflatoxins-contaminated groundnut meal in turkeys and poultry was reported34.

The list of aflatoxins produced by several fungal species includes AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2 and AFM1.

Among all known aflatoxins, AFB1 is the most common and potent35.

Aflatoxins are very stable and are rarely destroyed after processing36. Additionally, residues of aflatoxins are also reported to be excreted in milk, milk products, meat and eggs33.

AFB1 is well recognized for its hepatotoxic, teratogenic, immunotoxic and mutagenic potential and is classified as group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Cancer Research (IARC)37, as it causes hepatocellular carcinoma in human beings.

The order of severity of the mutagenic, immunosuppressive and carcinogenic effects of aflatoxins is:

AFB1> AFG1> AFB2>AFG233

AFB1 is predicted to exhibit developmental defects along with immune system dysfynction38.

Figure 4. Harmful effects of AFB1.

Species susceptibility to aflatoxins

All animal species are sensitive to aflatoxicosis, but outbreaks are usually encountered among pigs, cattle and sheep39.

The significant economic losses, including decline in growth rate
and productivity, are usually reported in farm animals depending
on individual susceptibility and the targeted species40, 41, 42.

Chronic exposure to AFB1 in farm animals can lead to various ailments, including liver dysfunction, compromised immune status and susceptibility to several diseases43,44,45,46,47,48.

  • Some of the animal species, such as monkeys, chickens and mice have been found to be resistant to AFB149, whereas cattle, horses and sheep are quite prone to AFB1-induced toxicity.
  • Younger animals have proven to be more susceptible than adult and older animals50.
  • Among aquatic animals, trout have been observed to be the most sensitive to AFB1 toxicity51.
  • Among poultry, the order of sensitivity is: ducks > turkeys> Japanese quail> chickens52.

Figure 5. Flow chart indicating mode of action of aflatoxin B1.

 

Abdominal pain, vomiting and oedema can be observed in acute stages, whereas development of hepatocellular carcinoma is evident in later stages56.

AFB1 toxicity in ruminants leads to:

  • Decline in ruminal motility
  • Decline in the cellular digestion and fatty acid production
  • Decline in feed efficiency and is secreted in milk as AFM1 after 12 h of consumption

Aflatoxin M1

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a group 1 carcinogen (IARC) formed through CYP1A2-dependent hydroxylation microbial biotransformation from AFB1. The nuclear adducts are formed and secreted in milk and urine.

The concentration of AFM1 in milk is influenced by several factors, such as duration of lactation and the milk yield of the animal57.

Figure 6. Aflatoxin M1 in the food chain.

Table 2. Permissible limits of aflatoxins consumption58, 59.

Table 3. Clinical and patho-anatomical effects of aflatoxins.

Image 1. Gross pathological alterations associated with AFB1. Liver of a rabbit showing chronic hepatitis along with tumorous growth.

Image 2. Photomicrographs of pathological alterations associated with AFB1 a. Liver showing diffuse hemorrhages along with a necrotic area in the hepatocytes along with hemosiderin deposition (H&E*66). b. Liver showing swollen hepatocytes with hydropic changes (H&E*66). c. Photomicrograph of liver showing portal fibrosis with bile duct hyperplasia (H&E*33). d. Liver showing peripheral shifting of nucleus giving a signet ring appearance indicating fatty changes in hepatocytes (H&E*66).

Effects of OCHRATOXIN A exposure

Aspergillus ochraceus, Auplopus carbonarius and Penicillium verrucosum are the most common fungal species associated with the production of ochratoxins in contaminated grains, raw and cooked food items and beverages (coffee, beans, and wine).

Aspergillus ochraceusand Penicillium verrucosum are the most potent moulds responsible for the production of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in tropical and temperate regions, respectively.

This mycotoxin was first reported in contaminated cornmeal72 and it is considered to be the most common and potent mycotoxin produced by these fungi73.

OTA is readily known for its nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic and genotoxicity in animals74,75,76. Additionally, it has been found to produce hepatocellular carcinoma as well, apart from the nephrotoxic properties, in a dose dependent manner77.

Pigs and poultry more sensitive to OTA induced toxicity.

Ruminants are usually resistant, as OTA is degraded by ruminal microflora to less toxic metabolites such as OTAα78.

Some researchers have shown the release of OTA in breast milk, which means it can act as a potent threat to the newborns through breastfeeding79.

Figure 7. Flow chart indicating the mechanism of action of OTA in kidney tubular cells80 81 82.

Table 4. Tolerable limits of OTA.

Table 5. Clinical and patho-anatomicaleffects of ochratoxins.

Image 3. Gross pathological alterations associated with OTA. a. Swollen and pale kidneys of Japanese quail (right) after administration of Ochratoxin A in diet in comparison to the kidneys on the left side b. Ruffled appearance of feathers in a Japanese quail after feeding Ochratoxin A.

Image 4. Photomicrograph of pathological alterations associated with OTA. Kidney showing fibrous tissue accumulation in the interstitial tissue causing atrophy of renal tubules in OTA toxicity (H&E*66).

Effects of FUMONISIN exposure

Fumonisins are produced by fungal species such as Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, and they are frequently spotted on maize giving it a whitish appearance99.

The most common forms of fumonisins include fumonisin A and fumonisin B (B1, B2, B3 and hydrolyzed B1), and among these fumonisin B1 is the most common and potent100.

Toxicity associated to fumonisins was firstly reported in 1980 as a cause of equine encephalomalacia (ELEM) and porcine pulmonary oedema (PPE) in the United States, and esophageal cancer in Africa.

These mycotoxins cause neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, embryo toxicity and nephrotoxicity in animals101,102.

Fumonisins are also reported to cause leukoencephlomacia in horses, hepatocellular carcinoma in rats and pulmonary oedema in association with hydrothorax in pigs103, whereas the IARC has also documented the carcinogenic potential of fumonisins in human beings104.

The production of this mycotoxin is promoted when moisture content is < 19%.

As per JECFA, the maximum tolerable limit of FB on the basis of no-observable-effect-level (NOEL) of 0.2 mg/kg bw/day with a safety factor 100 is 2 μg/kg/day105.

Mechanisms of action of Fumonisins102:

  • Competitive inhibition of the ceramide synthase enzyme
  • Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress
  • Autophagy modulation
  • Alteration of DNA methylation

Figure 8. Mechanisms of inhibition of sphingolipid metabolism.

Table 6. Clinical and patho-anatomical effects of fumonisins.

Image 5. Gross pathological alterations associated with FB1. a. Enlarged liver of a Japanese quail after feeding Fumonisin (FB1) for 3 weeks at the dose of 300 ppm. b. Enlargement of liver (right side) with Fumonisin (FB1) toxicity in comparison to normal liver on the left side.

Image 6. Photomicrograph of pathological alterations associated with FB1. Liver of a Japanese quail reflecting necrotic changes along with heterophilic infiltration admixed with mononuclear cells after the administration of FB1 (H&E*330).

Effects of TRICHOTHECENES exposure

Trichothecenes are toxic secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium graminearum, Stachybotrys, Fusarium poae, Fusarium langsethiae, etc, often found contaminating wheat, maize, barley and oat kept in damp environmental conditions.

Production of these mycotoxins is often favored by ambient temperature (0-32oC) with humid conditions120, 121.

The main mycotoxins belonging to the trichothecene group include type A (T-2) and type B toxins (DON), and their toxic potential is due to the presence of an epoxide ring122.

These toxic metabolites are quite resistant to processing and are only destroyed at temperatures above 260ºC for more than 30 min.

Harmful effects and tolerable limits of trichothecenes

In pigs, cattle, broilers and rats, trichothecenes damage the liver and stomach123.

Therefore, trichothecenes toxicity in farm animals is often associated to symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhoea, anorexia, weight loss and death124,125. Additionally, the malabsorption induced by trichothecenes in pigs, poultry and rats is often associated with necrosis of intestinal villi126,127.

According to the EU, the maximum limit for the presence of DON in cattle feed is 5 mg/Kg feed, whereas it is around 1 mg/Kg feed for calves.

Figure 9. Clinical and patho-anatomical effects of trichothecenes20, 21, 22, 23.

oIn studies conducted by Ingalls129 and Cote et al.130 no marked variation in the milk production was reported when DON is given at a rate of 14 mg/kg for 3 weeks and 66 mg/kg for 5 days, respectively.

Based on the presence of ester-ether bonds between C-4 and C-15 at C-12 we can divide trichothecenes into 2 types: macrocyclic and non-macrocyclic. The non-macrocyclic trichothecenes are enlisted in Table 7.

Table 7. Classification of trichothecenes.

The maximum tolerable limits of DON in most parts of the world are limited to 0.75 mg/kg in human diets and 1-5 mg/kg in animal rations128.

Table 8. Clinical and patho-anatomical effects of trichothecenes.

Effects of ZEARALENONE exposure

The most common fungal species involved in the production of zearalenone (ZEN) include Fusarium culmorum, F. cerealis and F. graminearum. This mycotoxin is commonly found in cereal grains in temperate regions with warm weather144, 145 and can remain stable at temperatures up to 150˚C146.

The highest production of ZEN is reported at 25˚C with 16% moisture content147,148.

Five major metabolites of ZEN include α-zearalenone (α-ZEN), β-zearalenone (β-ZEN), α-zearalenol (α-ZAL), β-zearalenol (β-ZAL) and zearalenol (ZON), α-ZEN having the highest estrogenic activity149, 150.

Zearalenone is responsible for causing ear rot in maize and head blight in wheat and barley151, with immunotoxic, genotoxic, hepatotoxic and hematotoxic effects in animals, as well as significant nephrotoxic potential with an ability to produce pituitary adenomas152,153,154,155. Additionally, ZEN is linked to reproductive disorders in animals and hyperestrogenic syndrome in human beings156.

Table 9. Tolerable limits of zearalenone (ZEN).

Pigs are speculated to be the most sensitive species for ZEN-induced reproductive disorders as compared to other animals157.

  • About 80-85% of oral dose of ZEN is found to be efficiently absorbed in pigs158.
  • The concentration of ZEN and α-ZEN in follicular fluid of swine is 38.9 and 17.6 pg/ml, respectively159.
  • Very limited data is documented about the folliculogenesis in ovaries of domestic animals160, but ZEN shows affinity towards estrogen receptors in uterus, mammary gland, brain and bones, which reflects its estrogenic potential161.

Figure 10. Mechanism of action of ZEN.

Table 10. Clinical and patho-anatomical effects of Zearalenone.

Effects of MONILFORMIN exposure

Fungal sources involved in the production of monilformin (MON) include Fusarium moniliforme, F proliferatum, F. avenaceum, F. subglutinans, F. tricinctum and Pencillium melanoconidium177, 178, 179, 180.

Contaminated cereal grains and plants used for silage preparation are the major source of production of this mycotoxin.

MON is cardiotoxic and hematotoxic181, with acute toxicity that is comparable to trichothecene toxicity (T2, HT-2)182, 183. Fatal outbreaks of MON are reported in animals, but experimental studies in birds and rats have shown potential pathological effects184,185,186.

Figure 11. Mechanisms of action of MON187, 188.

Clinical and patho-anatomical effects of moniliformin

In birds and laboratory rodents, intestinal hemorrhages are seen in acute cases, whereas cardiac hemorrhages are typical lesions in sub-acute and chronic cases of MON toxicity189.

  • In one of the sub-acute toxicity studies conducted by Jonsson et al.190 reflected intestinal hemorrhages with pulmonary congestion in rats without other specific lesions in other organs.
  • Cardiomyopathy depicted by necrotic and degenerative changes in the heart with hypertrophy of muscle fibers causing cardiac arrest in quail birds fed with MON at the dose of 100 ppm has also been documented in previous studies191.

Image 7. Gross pathological alterations associated with MON. Japanese quail showing rounding and dilation of heart (Right side) after feeding MON at the dose of 110- ppm for 3 weeks; Left side showing normal heart.

Image 8. Photomicrographs of pathological alterations associated MON. a. Heart of a Japanese quail showing hypertrophy of cardiac muscle fibers following MON administration (H& E*132). b. Glomerular tufts occupied by needle shaped uric acid crystals in MON toxicity (H&E*66).

MULTI-MYCOTOXIN toxicity

In field conditions, it is most common to find raw materials to be contaminated with one or more mycotoxins, with variations in the symptoms associated with exposure, as the combination of these toxins can involve different types of interactions, such as synergistic, additive or antagonistic effects as shown in Table 11.

Table 11. Combined toxic effects of various mycotoxins.

CONCLUSIONS

Mycotoxins are very harmful metabolites known to contaminate food items and are majorly implicated in several clinical and pathological impairments in human beings and animals.

Excessive levels of mycotoxins can cause health hazards to the animals directly and through animal products to human beings.

Although in many of the countries tolerable limits for various mycotoxins are standardized, a wide range of developing regions around the globe still need a thorough establishment of such standards with a strict follow-up to reduce the levels of mycotoxins in the food chain.

It is of utmost concern to prevent fungal contamination of food products by providing high-quality crops or animal products with controlled storage, harvesting and distribution strategies.

Regular monitoring of food items, animal feed etc. by employing proper guidelines and safety standards definitely will help to limit the fungal contamination.

In order to limit the production of mycotoxins, several strategies are proposed and followed time and again by various agencies and regulatory bodies. In the present scenario, to minimize the production of mycotoxins during processing of raw material and final food products for animal or human use the basic principles to be followed include:

  • Good Agricultural Practices (GAP)
  • Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
  • Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points System (HACCP)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Haschek, W.M.; Voss, K.A. Mycotoxins. Haschek and Rousseaux’s Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology. Third Edition. University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA, 2 USDA Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA, USA, 2013; 1187-1258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-415759- 0.00039-X

2. Milićević, D.R.; Skrinjar, M.; Baltić, T. Real and perceived risks for mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds: challenges for food safety control. Toxins 2010, 4, 572-92. doi: 10.3390/toxins2040572.

3. Pandya, J.P.; Arade, P.C. Mycotoxin: a devil of human, animal and crop health. Adv. Life Sci. 2016, 5, 3937–3941.

4. Binder, E.M. Managing the risk of mycotoxins in modern feed production. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2007, 133 (1–2), 149-166.

5. Coffey, R. EndaCummins; ShaneWard. xposure assessment of mycotoxins in dairy milk. Food Control 2009, 20 (3), 239-249.

6. Khazaeli, P.; Najafi, M.L.; Bahaabadi, GA.; Shakeri, F.; Naghibzadeh tahami, A. Evaluation of aflatoxin contamination in raw and roasted nuts in consumed Kerman and effect of roasting, packaging and storage conditions. Life Sci. J. 2014, 10, 578–583.

7. Pleadin, J.; Vahcic, N.; Persi.; Sevelj.; Markov, K.; Frece, J. Fusarium mycotoxins’ occurrence in cereals harvested from Croatian fields. Food Control 2013, 32, 49-54

8. Pleadin, J.; Kovačević, D.; Peršia, N. Ochratoxin A contamination of the autochthonous dry-cured meat product “Slavonski Kulen” during a six-month production process. Food Control 2015, 57, 377-384

9. Cavret, S.; Lecoeura, S. Fusariotoxin transfer in animal. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2006, 44(3), 444-453

10. Pleadin, J.; Staver, M.M.; Vahčić, N.; Kovačević, D.; Milone, S.; LaraSaftićb Scortichini, G. Survey of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A occurrence in traditional meat products coming from Croatian households and markets. Food Control 2015, 52, 71-77

11. Creppy, E.E. Update of survey, regulation and toxic effects of mycotoxins in Europe. Toxicol Lett. 2002, 28, 127(1-3), 19-28. doi: 10.1016/ s0378-4274(01)00479-9.

12. Speijers, G.J.; Speijers, M.H. Combined toxic effects of mycotoxins. Toxicol Lett. 2004, 153(1), 91-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2004.04.046.

13. Fleurat-Lessard, F. Integrated management of risk of stored grain spoilage by seedborne fungi and contamination by storage mould Mycotoxins: An update. Journal of Stored Products Research 2017, 71, 22: 40.

14. Pleadin, J.; Frece, J.; Markov, K. Mycotoxins in food and feed. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2019, 89, 297-345. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2019.02.007.

15. Ringot, D.; Chango, A.; Schneiderb, Y.J.; Larondelle, Y. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of ochratoxin A, an update. Chemico-Biological Interactions 2006, 159, 18-46

16. Sorrenti, V.; Di Giacomo, C.; Acquaviva, R.; Barbagallo, I.; Bognanno, M.; Galvano, F. Toxicity of ochratoxin A and its modulation by antioxidants: a review. Toxins 2013, 5, 1742-1766.

17. Kuroda, K.; Hibi, D.; Ishii, Y.; Yokoo, Y.; Takasu, S.; Kijima, A.; Matsushita K.; Masumura K.I.; Kodama Y.; Yanai T.; Sakai H.; Nohmi T.; Ogawa, K.; Umemura, T. Role of p53 in the progression from ochratoxin A-induced DNA damage to gene mutations in the kidneys of mice. Toxicological Sciences 2015, 144, 65-76

18. Hamid, A.S.; Tesfamariam, I.G.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.G. Aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in developing countries: geographical distribution, mechanism of action and prevention. Oncology letters 2013, 5, 1087-1092

19. McLean, M.; Dutton, M.F. Cellular interactions and metabolism of aflatoxin: an update. Pharmacology and Therapeutics 1995, 65, 163-192.

20. Carter, C.J.; Cannon, M. Structural requirements for the inhibitory action of 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes on protein synthesis in eukaryotes. Biochemical Journal 1977, 166, 399–409.

21. McLaughlin, C.S.; Vaughan, M.H.; Campbell, I.M.; Wei, C.M.; Stafford, M.E.; Hansen, B.S. 1977. Inhibition of protein synthesis by trichothecenes. In: Rodricks, JV.; Hesseltine, CW.; Mehlman, MA. (Eds.), Mycotoxins in Human and Animal Health. Pathotox Publications, Park Forest South, IL, 1997; 263–273.

22. Yang, L.; Tu, D.; Zhao, Z.; Cui, J. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by mixed mycotoxins (T-2 and HT-2 toxin) on primary hepatocytes of broilers in vitro. Toxicon 2017, 129, 1–10. 10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.01.001

23. Bin-Umer, M.A.; McLaughlin, J.E.; Basu, D.; McCormick, S.; Tumer, N.E. Trichothecene mycotoxins inhibit mitochondrial translation–implication for the mechanism of toxicity. Toxins 2011, 3(12), 1484-501. doi: 10.3390/toxins3121484.

24. Pestka, J.J.; Zhou, H.R.; Moon, Y.; Chung, Y.J. Cellular and molecular mechanisms for immune modulation by deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes: unraveling a paradox. Toxicology Letters 2004,153, 61-73.

25. Weidner, M.; Welsch, T.; Hübner, F.; Schwerdt, G.; Gekle, M.; Humpf, H.U. Identification and apoptotic potential of T-2 toxin metabolites in human cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2012, 60, 5676-5684.

26. Thiel, P.G. A molecular mechanism for the toxic action of moniliformin, a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium moniliforme. Biochem Pharmacol. 1978, 27, 483-486.

27. Zhang, A.; Cao, J.L.; Yang, B.; Chen, J.H. Zhang, Z.-T.; Li, S.-Y.; Fu, Q.; Hugnes, C.; Caterson, B. Effects of moniliformin and selenium on human articular cartilage metabolism and their potential relationships to the pathogenesis of Kashin-Beck disease. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B. 2010, 11 (3), 200–208.

28. Wang, Y.; Zheng, W.; Bian, X.; Yuan, Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, X.; Liu, Z.; Bian, J. Zearalenone induces apoptosis and cytoprotective autophagy in primary leydig cells. Toxicology Letters 2014, 226 (2), 182–91.

29. Liu, X.; Fan, L.; Yin, S.; Chen, H.; Hu, H. Molecular mechanisms of fumonisin B1-induced toxicities and its applications in the mechanism-based interventions. Toxicon. 2019, 167, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.Toxicon.2019.06.009.

30. Brunton, L.L.; Lazo, J.S.; Parker, K.L.; Goodman and Gilman’s. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11th edition. Ed McGraw-Hill. New York, 2006; 1984.

31. EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM); Scientific Opinion on Ergot alkaloids in food and feed. EFSA Journal 2012, 10(7), 2798. [158 pp.] doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2798.

32. Forth, W.; Henschler, D.; Rummel, W. Allgemeine und spezielle Pharmakologie und Toxikologie. Urban & Fischer Verlag, München, Germany, 2009; 10.

33. Bbosa, G.S.; Kitya, D.; Odda, J.; Ogwal-Okang, J. Aflatoxin metabolism, effect of epigenetic mechanisms and their role in carcinogenesis. Health 2013, 5, 14-34

34. Food and Agriculture Organisation/World Health Organization, Safety evaluation of certain contaminants in food. Prepared by the Seventy-Second Meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). WHO Food Additives Series 2011, 63.

35. Muhammad, I.; Sun, X.; Wang, H.; Li, W.; Wang, X.; Cheng, P.; Li, S., Zhang, X., Hamid, S. Curcumin successfully inhibited the computationally identified CYP2A6 enzyme-mediated bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 in arbor acres broiler. Front. Pharmacol 2017, 8, 143. 10.3389/ fphar.2017.00143

36. Nogaim, Q.A. Aflatoxins M1 and M2 in dairy products. J. Appl. Chem. 2014, 2(5), 14-25.

37. IARC IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Iarc Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 2010, 93, 9–38. doi: 10.1136/jcp.48.7.691-a. [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

38. Razzaghi-Abyaneh, M.; Saberi, R.; Sharifan, A.; Rezaee, M.B.; Seifili, R.; Hosseini, S.I.; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M.; Nikkhah, M.; Saberi, I.; Amani, A. Effects of Heracleum persicum ethyl acetate extract on the growth, hyphal ultrastructure and aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. Mycotoxin Res. 2013, 29(4), 261-9. doi: 10.1007/s12550-013-0171-1. Epub 2013 Jun 19. PMID: 23780853.

39. Radostits, O.M.; Gay C.C.; Hinchcliff, K.W.; Constable, P.D. A Textbook of the Disease of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs and Goats. Vet. Med. 2007, 1452–1461.

40. Rustemeyer, S.M.; Lamberson, W.R.; Ledoux, D.R.; Wells, K.; Austin, K.J.; Cammack, K.M. Effects of dietary aflatoxin on the hepatic expression of apoptosis genes in growing barrows. J. Anim. Sci. 2011, 89,916–925. doi: 10.2527/jas.2010-3473.

41. Shi, F.; Seng, X.; Tang, H.; Zhao, S.; Deng, Y.; Jin, R.; Li, Y. Effect of low levels of aflatoxin B1 on performance, serum biochemistry, hepatocyte apoptosis and liver histopathological changes of cherry valley ducks. J. Anim. Vet. Adv. 2013,12,1126–1130. doi: 10.3923/javaa.2013.1126.1130.

42. Monson, M.S.; Settlage, R.E.; McMahon, K.W.; Mendoza, K.M.; Rawal, S.; El-Nezami H.S.; Coulombe, R.A.; Reed, K.M. Response of the hepatic transcriptome to aflatoxin b1in domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) PLoS ONE 2014, 9: e100930. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100930.

43. Hasheminya, S.M.; J, Dehghannya. Strategies for decreasing aflatoxin in livestock feed and milk. Int. Res. J. Appl. Basic Sci. 2013, 4, 1506–1510.

44. IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Chemical agents and related occupations. Iarc Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risks Hum. 2012, 100, 9–562.

45. Jafari, T.; Fallah, A.A.; Kheiri, S.; Fadaei, A.; Amini, S.A. Aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk in Shahrekord, Iran and association with dietary factors. Food Addit. Contam. Part B Surveill. 2017, 10, 128–136. doi: 10.1080/19393210.2017.1282545.

46. Marchese, S.; Sorice, A.; Ariano, A.; Florio, S.; Budillon, A.; Costantini, S.; Severino, L. Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Effects on the Metabolomic and Cytokinomic Profiling of a Hepatoblastoma Cell Line. Toxins 2018, 10, 436. doi: 10.3390/toxins10110436.

47. Shuib, N.S.; Makahleh, A.; Salhimi, S.M.; Saad, B. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in fresh cow milk and human milk in Penang, Malaysia. Food Control, 2017, 73, 966–970. doi: 10.1016/j.foodcont.2016.10.013.

48. Tahoun, A.; Ahmed, M.; Abou Elez, R.; AbdEllatif, S. Aflatoxin M1 in Milk and some Dairy Products: Level, Effect of Manufature and Public Health Concerns. Zagazig Vet. J. 2017, 45, 188–196. doi: 10.21608/zvjz.2017.7891.

49. Khan, W.A.; Khan, M.Z.; Khan, A.; Hussan, Z.U.; Saleemi, M.K. Potential of amelioration for aflatoxin B1induced immunotoxic effects in progeny of white leghorn breeder hens co-exposed to E. Journal of Immunotoxicol. 2014, 11, 116-125.

50. Williams, J.H.; Phillips, T.D.; Jolly, P.E.; Stiles, J.K.; Jolly, C.M.; Aggarwal, D. Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: a review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences, and interventions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004, 80(5),1106-22. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/80.5.1106. PMID: 15531656.

51. Monson, M.; Coulombe, R.; Reed, K. Aflatoxicosis: Lessons from Toxicity and Responses to Aflatoxin B1 in Poultry. Agriculture 2015, 5, 742–777. doi: 10.3390/agriculture5030742.

52. Santacroce, M.P.; Conversano, M.C.; Casalino, E.; Lai, O.; Zizzadoro, C.; Centoducati, G.; Crescenzo, G. Aflatoxins in aquatic species: Metabolism, toxicity and perspectives. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 2008, 18, 99–130. doi: 10.1007/s11160-007-9064-8.

53. Dohnal, V.; Wu, Q.; Kuča K. Metabolism of aflatoxins: Key enzymes and interindividual as well as interspecies differences. Arch. Toxicol. 2014, 88, 1635–1644. doi: 10.1007/s00204-014-1312-9.

54. Kuilman, M.E.M.; Maas, R.F.M.; Judah, D.J.; Fink-Gremmels, J. Bovine Hepatic Metabolism of Aflatoxin B1. J. Agric. Food Chem. 1998, 46, 2707–2713. doi: 10.1021/jf980062x.

55. Wogan, G.N.; Kensler, T.W.; Groopman, J.D. Present and future directions of translational research on aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma. A review. Food Addit. Contam. Part A. 2012, 29, 249–257. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2011.563370.

56. Mohd-Redzwan, S.; Jamaluddin, R.; Mutalib, A.; Sokhini, M.; Ahmad, Z. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future. Front. Microbiol. 2013, 4, 334. 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00334.

57. Diaz, D.E.; Hagler, J.W.M.; Blackwelder, J.T.; Eve, J.A.; Hopkins, B.A.; Anderson, K.L.; Jones, F.T.; Whitlow, L.W. Aflatoxin binders II: Reduction of aflatoxin M1 in milk by sequestering agents of cows consuming aflatoxin in feed. Mycopathologia 2004, 157, 233–241.

58. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the Commission related to aflatoxin B1 as undesirable substance in animal feed. EFSA J. 2004, 39, 1–27. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2004.

59. Kaplan, N.M.; Biff, F.; Palmer Sanjay, G.; Revankar. Clinical Implications of Mycotoxins and Stachybotrys. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences 2003, 325 (5), 262-274.

60. Afsah-Hejri, L.; Jinap, S.; Hajeb, P.; Radu, S.; Shakibazadeh, Sh. A Review on Mycotoxins in Food and Feed: Malaysia Case Study. Comprehensive Reviews in. Food Science and Food Safety 2013, 12. doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12029

61. Elgioushy, M.M.; Elgaml, S.A.; El-Adl, M.M.; Hegazy, A.M.; Hashish, E.A. Aflatoxicosis in cattle: clinical findings and biochemical alterations. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 27(28), 35526-35534. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-09489-3.

62. McKenzie, R.A.; Blaney, B.J.; Connole, M.D.; Fitzpatrick, LA. Acute aflatoxicosis in calves fed peanut hay. Aust Vet J. 1981, 57(6), 284-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.1981.tb05816.x.

63. Vaid, J.; Dawra, R.K.; Sharma, O.P.; Negi, S.S. Chronic aflatoxicosis in cattle. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1981, 23(6), 436-8.

64. Jones, F.T.; Genter, M.B.; Hagler, W.M.; Hansen, J.A.; Mowrey, BA.; Poore, M.H.; Whitlow, L.W. Understanding and Coping with Effects of Mycotoxins in Livestock Feed and Forage. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service, Carolina, 1994; 1-14.

65. Yalagod, S.G.; Mundas, S.; Rao D.G.K.; Tikare, V.; Shridhar, N.B. Histopathological changes in pigs exposed to aflatoxin B1 during pregnancy.. Indian Journal of Animal research 2013, 47(5), 386-391.

66. Ketterer, P.J.; Blaney, B.J.; Moore, C.J.; McInnes, I.S.; Cook, PW. Field cases of aflatoxicosis in pigs. Aust Vet J. 1982, 59(4), 113-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.1982.tb02743.x.

67. Dönmez, N.; Dönmez, H.H.; Keskin, E.; Kısadere, İ. Effects of aflatoxin on some haematological parameters and protective effectiveness of esterified glucomannan in Merino rams. Scientific World Journal 2012, 342468. doi: 10.1100/2012/342468.

68. Colakoglu, F.; Donmez, H.H. Effects of aflatoxin on liver and protective effectiveness of esterified glucomannan in Merino rams. Scientific World Journal 2012, 462925. doi: 10.1100/2012/462925.

69. Smith, E.E.; Kubena, L.F.; Braithwaite, CE.; Harvey, RB.; Phillips, TD.; Reine, AH. Toxicological evaluation of aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 1992, 71(7), 1136-44. doi: 10.3382/ps.0711136.

70. Ahmed, M.A.E.; Ravikanth, K.; Rekhe, D.S. Maini,Histopathological alterations in Aflatoxicity and its amelioration with herbomineral toxin binder in broilers. Veterinary World 2009, 2(10).

71. Kumar, R.; Balachandran C. Histopathological changes in broiler chickens fed afl atoxin and cyclopiazonic acid. Veterinarski Arhiv. 2009, 79 (1), 31-40.

72. Duarte, S.C.; Lino, C.M.; Pena, A. Food safety implications of ochratoxin A in animal-derived food products. Vet J. 2012, 192(3), 286-92. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2011.11.002.

73. Liuzzi, V.C.; Fanelli, F.; Tristezza, M.; Haidukowski, M.; Picardi, E.; Manzari, C.; Lionetti, C.; Grieco, F.; Logrieco, A.F.; Thon, M.R.; Pesole, G.; Mulè G. Transcriptional analysis of Acinetobacter sp. neg1 capable of degrading ochratoxin A. Front. Microbiol. 2017, 7, 2162. 10.3389/ fmicb.2016.02162

74. Ladeira, C.; Frazzoli, C.; Orisakwe, OE. Engaging one health for non-communicable diseases in Africa: perspective for mycotoxins. Front. Public Health 2017, 5, 266. 10.3389/fpubh.2017.00266

75. Russo, P.; Capozzi, V.; Spano, G.; Corbo, M.R.; Sinigaglia, M.; Bevilacqua, A. Metabolites of microbial origin with an impact on health: ochratoxin A and biogenic amines. Front. Microbiol. 2016, 7,482. 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00482

76. EFSA European Food Safety Authority. Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to OTA in food. Question n. efsa-q 2005-154. EFSA J. 2006, 365,1–56.

77. Felizardo, R.J.; Câmara, N.O. Hepatocellular carcinoma and food contamination: aflatoxins and ochratoxin A as a great prompter. World J Gastroenterol. 2013, 19(24), 3723-5. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i24.3723.

78. Fink-Gremmels, J.; Malekinejad, H. Clinical effects and biochemical mechanisms associated with exposure to the mycoestrogen zearalenone. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2007, 137(3-4), 326–41.

79. Biasucci, G.; Calabrese, G.; Di Giuseppe, R.; Carrara, G.; Colombo, F.; Mandelli, B.; Maj, M.; Bertuzzi, T.; Pietri, A.; Rossi, F. The presence of ochratoxin A in cord serum and in human milk and its correspondence with maternal dietary habits. Eur J Nutr. 2010, 50, 211–218

80. Anzai, N.; Jutabha, P.; Endou, H. Molecular mechanism of ochratoxin a transport in the kidney. Toxins (Basel) 2010, 2(6), 1381-98. doi: 10.3390/toxins2061381. Epub 2010 Jun 9. PMID: 22069643; PMCID: PMC3153260.

81. Zlender, V.; Breljak, D.; Ljubojević, M.; Flajs, D.; Balen, D.; Brzica, H.; Domijan, A.M.; Peraica, M.; Fuchs, R.; Anzai, N.; Sabolić, I. Low doses of ochratoxin A upregulate the protein expression of organic anion transporters Oat1, Oat2, Oat3 and Oat5 in rat kidney cortex. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009, 239(3), 284-96. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2009.06.008. Epub 2009 Jun 16. PMID: 19538982.

82. Arsani, R.K.; Patial, V.; Thakur, M. Ochratoxin A: Possible Mechanisms of Toxicity. In book: Ochratoxins: Biosynthesis, Detection and Toxicity Publisher: Nova Publishers, New York, pp.57-89.

83. Capei, R.; Pettini, L.; Mandò Tacconi, F. Occurrence of Ochratoxin A in breakfast cereals and sweet snacks in Italy: dietary exposure assessment. Ann Ig. 2019, 31(2), 130-139. doi: 10.7416/ai.2019.2265. PMID: 30714610.

84. el Khoury, A.; Atoui, A. Ochratoxin a: general overview and actual molecular status. Toxins (Basel) 2010, 2(4), 461-93. doi: 10.3390/ toxins2040461. Epub 2010 Mar 29. PMID: 22069596; PMCID: PMC3153212.

85. European Commission. Commission regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006 of 19 December 2006 setting maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs. Off J Eur Union L. 2006, 364, 5-24.

86. Pavlović, N.M. Balkan endemic nephropathy-current status and future perspectives. Clin Kidney J. 2013, 6(3), 257-65. doi: 10.1093/ckj/ sft049. PMID: 26064484; PMCID: PMC4400492.

87. Reddy, K.R.N.; Salleh, B.; Saad, B.; Abbas, H.K. An overview of mycotoxin contamination in foods and its implications for human health. Toxin Reviews. 2010, 29(1), 3-26

88. Hassen, W.; Abid-Essafi, S.; Achour, A.; Guezzah, N.; Zakhama, A.; Ellouz, F.; Creppy, E.E.; Bacha, H. Karyomegaly of tubular kidney cells in human chronic interstitial nephropathy in Tunisia: respective role of Ochratoxin A and possible genetic predisposition. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2004, 23(7), 339-46. doi: 10.1191/0960327104ht458oa. PMID: 15311851.

89. O’Brien, E.; Dietrich, D.R. Ochratoxin A: the continuing enigma. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2005, 35(1), 33-60. doi: 10.1080/10408440590905948. PMID: 15742902.

90. Yordanova, P.; Wilfried, K.; Tsolova, S.; Dimitrov, P. Ochratoxin A and β2-microglobulin in BEN patients and controls. Toxins (Basel) 2010, 2(4), 780-92. doi: 10.3390/toxins2040780. Epub 2010 Apr 20. PMID: 22069610; PMCID: PMC3153209.

91. Sauvant, C.; Holzinger, H.; Gekle, M. The nephrotoxin ochratoxin A induces key parameters of chronic interstitial nephropathy in renal proximal tubular cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2005, 15(1-4), 125-34. doi: 10.1159/000083660. PMID: 15665523.

92. Stoev, S.D.; Hald, B.; Mantle, P. Porcine nephropathy in Bulgaria: a progressive syndrome of complex of uncertain (mycotoxin) etiology. Vet Rec. 1998, 142, 190–194.

93. Perši, N.; Pleadin, J.; Kovačević, D.; Scortichini, G.; Milone, S. Ochratoxin A in raw materials and cooked meat products made from OTA-treated pigs. Meat Sci. 2014, 96(1), 203-10. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2013.07.005. Epub 2013 Jul 12. PMID: 23906754.

94. Gresham, A.; Done, S.; Livesey, C.; MacDonald, S.; Chan, D.; Sayers, R.; Clark, C.; Kemp, P. Survey of pigs’ kidneys with lesions consistent with PMWS and PDNS and ochratoxicosis. Part 2: pathological and histological findings. Vet Rec. 2006, 159(23), 761-8. PMID: 17142623.

95. Cook, W.O.; Osweiler, G.D.; Anderson, T.D.; Richard, JL. Ochratoxicosis in Iowa swine. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1986, 188(12), 1399-402. PMID: 3744966.

96. Patial, V.; Asrani, R.K.; Patil, R.D.; Ledoux, D.R.; Rottinghaus, G.E. Pathology of ochratoxin A-induced nephrotoxicity in Japanese quail and its protection by sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.). Avian Dis. 2013, 57(4), 767-79. doi: 10.1637/10549-040913-Reg.1. PMID: 24597120.

97. Patial, V.; Asrani, R.K.; Patil, R.D.; Kumar, N. Protective Effect of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) Leaves on Ochratoxin-A Induced Hepatic Injury in Japanese quail. Veterinary Research International 2015, 3(4), 98-108.

98. Patil, R.D.; Dwivedi, P.; Sharma, A.K. Critical period and minimum single oral dose of ochratoxin A for inducing developmental toxicity in pregnant Wistar rats. Reprod Toxicol. 2006, 22(4), 679-87. doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2006.04.022. Epub 2006 Jun 14. PMID: 16781114.

99. Mazzoni, E.; Scandolara, A.; Giorni, P.; Pietri, A.; Battilani, P. Field control of Fusarium ear rot, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), and fumonisins in maize kernels. Pest Manag Sci. 2011, 67(4):458-65. doi: 10.1002/ps.2084. Epub 2011 Jan 6. PMID: 21394878.

100. Lerda, D. Fumonisins in foods from Cordoba (Argentina), presence: mini review. Toxicol. 2017, 3, 125 10.4172/2476-2067.1000125

101. Lumsangkul, C.; Chiang, HI.; Lo, NW.; Fan, YK.; Ju, JC. Developmental Toxicity of Mycotoxin Fumonisin B₁ in Animal Embryogenesis: An Overview. Toxins (Basel) 2019, 11(2), 114. doi: 10.3390/toxins11020114. PMID: 30781891; PMCID: PMC6410136.

102. Liu, X.; Fan, L.; Yin, S.; Chen, H.; Hu, H. Molecular mechanisms of fumonisin B1-induced toxicities and its applications in the mechanism-based interventions. Toxicon. 2019, 167, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.06.009. Epub 2019 Jun 4. PMID: 31173793.

103. da Rocha, M.E.B.; Freire, F.D.C.O.; Maia, F.E.F.; Guedes, M.I.F.; Rondina, D. Mycotoxins and their effects on human and animal health. Food Control 2014, 36, 159–165. 10.1016/j.foodcont.2013.08.021

104. IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 82. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2002; 82.

105. WHO (World Health Organization). Safety Evaluation of Certain Mycotoxins in Food. WHO Food Additive Series 47, Geneva, 2001.

106. Abnet, C.C.; Borkowf, C.B.; Qiao, Y.L.; Albert, P.S.; Wang, E.; Merrill AH, Jr.; Mark, S.D.; Dong, Z.W.; Taylor, P.R.; Dawsey, S.M. Sphingolipids as biomarkers of fumonisin exposure and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in china. Cancer Causes Control 2001, 12(9), 821-8. doi: 10.1023/a:1012228000014. PMID: 11714110.

107. Voss, K.A.; Riley, T.R.; Waes Gelineau-van, J. Fumonisin B1 induced neural tube defects were not increased in LM/Bc mice fed folate-deficient diet. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2014, 58(6).

108. Sandmeyer, L.S.; Vujanovic, V.; Petrie, L.; Campbell, J.R.; Bauer, B.S.; Allen, AL.; Grahn, B.H. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn. Can Vet J. 2015, 56(3), 249-56. PMID: 25750444; PMCID: PMC4327135.

109. Mathur, S.; Constable, P.D.; Eppley, R.M.; Waggoner, A.L.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Haschek, W.M. Fumonisin B(1) is hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic in milk-fed calves. Toxicol Sci. 2001, 60(2), 385-96. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/60.2.385. PMID: 11248152.

110. Wilson, T.M.; Ross, P.F.; Rice, L.G.; Osweiler, G.D.; Nelson, H.A.; Owens, D.L.; Plattner, R.D.; Reggiardo, C.; Noon, TH.; Pickrell, JW. Fumonisin B, levels associated with an epizootic of equine leukoencephalomalacia. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1990, 2, 213-6.

111. Haschek, W.M.; Gumprecht, L.A.; Smith, G.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Constable, P.D. Fumonisin toxicosis in swine: an overview of porcine pulmonary edema and current perspectives. Environ Health Perspect. 2001,109 (Suppl 2), 251-7. doi: 10.1289/ehp.01109s2251. PMID: 11359693; PMCID: PMC1240673.

112. Osweiler, G.D.; Ross, P.F.; Wilson, T.M.; Nelson, P.E.; Witte, S.T.; Carson, T.L.; Rice, L.G.; Nelson, H.A. Characterization of an epizootic of pulmonary edema in swine associated with fumonisin in corn screenings. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 1992, 4, 53–59.

113. Colvin, B.M.; Cooley, A.J.; Beaver, RW. Fumonisin toxicosis in swine: clinical and pathological findings. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 1993, 5, 232–241.

114. Giannitti, F.; Diab, S.; Pacin, A.; Barrandeguy, M.; Larrere, C et al. Equine leukoencephalomalacia due to fumonisins B1 and B2 in Argentina. Pesq Vet Bras. 2011, 31, 407-412.

115. Kovacić, S.; Pepeljnjak, S.; Petrinec, Z.; Klarić, M.S. Fumonisin B1 neurotoxicity in young carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2009, 60(4), 419-26. doi: 10.2478/10004-1254-60-2009-1974. PMID: 20061242.

116. Benlasher, E.; Geng, X.; Nguyen, N.T.; Tardieu, D.; Bailly, J.D.; Auvergne, A.; Guerre, P. Comparative effects of fumonisins on sphingolipid metabolism and toxicity in ducks and turkeys. Avian Dis. 2012, 56(1), 120-7. doi: 10.1637/9853-071911-Reg.1. PMID: 22545537.

117. Ledoux, D.R.; Brown, T.P.; Weibking, TS.; Rottinghaus, GE. Fumonisin toxicity in broiler chicks. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1992, 4(3), 330-3. doi: 10.1177/104063879200400317. PMID: 1515495.

118. Deshmukh, S.; Asrani, R.K.; Jindal, N.; Ledoux, D.R.; Rottinghaus, G.E.; Sharma, M.; Singh, S.P. Effects of Fusarium moniliforme culture material containing known levels of fumonisin B1 on progress of Salmonella Gallinarum infection in Japanese quail: clinical signs and hematologic studies. Avian Dis. 2005, 49(2), 274-80. doi: 10.1637/7296-102804R. PMID: 16094834.

119. Deshmukh, S.; Asrani, R.K.; Ledoux, D.R.; Rottinghaus, G.E.; Bermudez, A.J.; Gupta, V.K. Pathologic changes in extrahepatic organs and agglutinin response to Salmonella Gallinarum infection in Japanese quail fed Fusarium verticillioides culture material containing known levels of fumonisin B1. Avian Dis. 2007, 51(3):705-12. doi: 10.1637/0005-2086(2007)51

120. Jaradat, Z.W, T-2 mycotoxin in the diet and its effects on tissues. In: Watson RR and Preedy VR. Reviews in Food and Nutrition Toxicity 2005, 4, 173-212.

121. SCF, Scientific Committee on Food. Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Fusarium Toxins. Part 5: T-2 Toxin and HT-2 Toxin. 2001, SCF/CS/CNTM/MYC/25 Rev 6 Final. http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out88_en.pdf.

122. Nathanail, A.V.; Syvähuoko, J.; Malachová, A.; Jestoi, M.; Varga, E.; Michlmayr, H.; Adam, G.; Sieviläinen, E.; Berthiller, F.; Peltonen, K. Simultaneous determination of major type A and B trichothecenes, zearalenone and certain modified metabolites in Finnish cereal grains with a novel liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2015, 407(16), 4745-55. doi: 10.1007/s00216-015-8676- 4. Epub 2015 May 3. PMID: 25935671; PMCID: PMC4446524.

123. Adhikari, M.; Negi, B.; Kaushik, N.; Adhikari, A.; Al-Khedhairy, A.A.; Kaushik, N.K.; Choi, E.H. T-2 mycotoxin: toxicological effects and decontamination strategies. Oncotarget 2017, 8(20), 33933-33952. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15422. PMID: 28430618; PMCID: PMC5464924.

124. Borutova, R.; Faix, S.; Placha, I.; Gresakova, L.; Cobanova, K.; Leng, L. Effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone on oxidative stress and blood phagocytic activity in broilers. Arch Anim Nutr. 2008 62(4), 303-12. doi: 10.1080/17450390802190292. PMID: 18763624

125. Eriksen, G.S.; Petterson, H. Toxicological evaluation of trichothecenes in animal feed. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2004, 114, 205–239DOI:10.1016/J.ANIFEEDSCI.2003.08.008 Corpus ID: 85123463

126. Kolf-Clauw, M.; Sassahara, M.; Lucioli, J.; Rubira-Gerez, J.; Alassane-Kpembi, I.; Lyazhri, F.; Borin, C.; Oswald, I.P. The emerging mycotoxin, enniatin B1, down-modulates the gastrointestinal toxicity of T-2 toxin in vitro on intestinal epithelial cells and ex vivo on intestinal explants. Arch Toxicol. 2013, 87(12), 2233-41. doi: 10.1007/s00204-013-1067-8. Epub 2013 May 7. PMID: 23649843.

127. Alizadeh, A.; Braber, S.; Akbari, P.; Garssen, J.; Fink-Gremmels, J. Deoxynivalenol Impairs Weight Gain and Affects Markers of Gut Health after Low-Dose, Short-Term Exposure of Growing Pigs. Toxins (Basel) 2015, 7(6), 2071-95. doi: 10.3390/toxins7062071. PMID: 26067367; PMCID: PMC4488690.

128. Zhu, Y.; Hassan, Y.I.; Shao, S.; Zhou, T. Employing immuno-affinity for the analysis of various microbial metabolites of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. J Chromatogr A. 2018, 1556, 81-87. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2018.04.067. Epub 2018 May 1. PMID: 29731291.

129. Ingalls, J.R. Influence of deoxynivalenol on feed consumption by dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 1996, 60, 297-300. ISSN 0377-8401

130. Cote, L. M.; Dahlem, A. M.; Yoshizawa, T.; Swanson, S. P.; Buck, W. B. Excretion of deoxynivalenol and its metabolites in milk, urine, and feces of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 1986, 69, 2416–2423.

131. Hendry, K.M.; Cole, EC. A review of mycotoxins in indoor air. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Sci. 1993, 38, 183–198. doi: 10.1080/15287399309531711.

132. Weindenborner, M. Natural Mycotoxin Contamination in Humans and Animals. Springer, Switzerland, 2015.

133. Zouagui, Z.; Asrar, M.; Lakhdissi, H.; Abdennebi, E. Prevention of mycotoxin effects in dairy cows by adding an anti-mycotoxin product in feed. J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 2017, 8, 3766–3770. [Google Scholar]

134. Valgaeren, B.; Théron, L.; Croubels, S.; Devreese, M.; De Baere, S.; Van Pamel, E.; Daeseleire, E.; De Boevre, M.; De Saeger, S.; Vidal, A.; Di Mavungu, J.D.; Fruhmann, P.; Adam, G.; Callebaut, A.; Bayrou, C.; Frisée, V.; Rao, A.S.; Knapp, E.; Sartelet, A.; Pardon, B.; Deprez, P.; Antonissen, G. The role of roughage provision on the absorption and disposition of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in calves: from field observations to toxicokinetics. Arch Toxicol. 2019, 93(2), 293-310. doi: 10.1007/s00204-018-2368-8. Epub 2018 Dec 10. PMID: 30535711.

135. Helferich, W.G.; Garrett, WN.; Hsieh, DPH.; Baldwin, RL. Feedlot performance and tissue residues of cattle consuming diets containing aflatoxins. J Anim Sci. 1986, 62, 691–696. pmid:3700268

136. Petrie, L.; Robb, J.; Stewart, A.F. The identification of T-2 toxin and its association with a haemorrhagic syndrome in cattle. Vet Rec. 1977, 101, 326–326. pmid:929903

137. Wannemacher, R.W.; Brunner, D.L.; Neufeld, H.A. Toxicity of trichothecenes and other related mycotoxins in laboratory animals. In: Smith J.E. and Henderson R.S. (Eds.), “Mycotoxins and Animal Foods.” CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton FL, 1991. pp. 499–552.

138. Serviento, A.M.; Brossard, L.; Renaudeau, D. An acute challenge with a deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet has short- and long-term effects on performance and feeding behavior in finishing pigs. J Anim Sci. 2018, 96(12), 5209-5221. doi: 10.1093/jas/sky378. PMID: 30423126; PMCID: PMC6276570.

139. Bracarense, A.P.F.L.; Lucioli, J.; Grenier, B.; Pacheco, G.D.; Moll, W-D.; Schatzmayr, G.; Oswald, I.P. Chronic ingestion of deoxynivalenol and fumonisin, alone or in interaction, induces morphological and immunological changes in the intestine of piglets. Brit J Nutr. 2012, 107, 1776–1786.

140. Gerez,J.R.; Pinton, P.; Callu, P.; Grosjean, F.; Oswald, IP.; Bracarense, APFL. Deoxynivalenol alone or in combination with nivalenol and zearalenone induce systemic histological changes in pigs. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2015, 67, 89–98.

141. Gerez, J.R.; Desto, S.S.; Bracarense, A.P.F.R.L. Deoxynivalenol induces toxic effects in the ovaries of pigs: An ex vivo approach. Theriogenology 2017, 90, 94-100. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2016.10.023. Epub 2016 Nov 9. PMID: 28166994.

142. Ferreras, M.C.; Benavides, J.; García-Pariente, C.; Delgado, L.; Fuertes, M.; Muñoz, M.; García-Marín, J.F.; Pérez, V. Acute and chronic disease associated with naturally occurring T-2 mycotoxicosis in sheep. J Comp Pathol. 2013, 148(2-3):236-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2012.05.016. Epub 2012 Jul 20. PMID: 22819015.

143. Nayakwadi, S.; Ramu, R.; Kumar Sharma, A.; Kumar Gupta, V.; Rajukumar, K.; Kumar, V.; Shirahatti, P.S.; Rashmi, L.; Basalingappa, K.M. Toxicopathological studies on the effects of T-2 mycotoxin and their interaction in juvenile goats. PLoS One, 2020, 26, 15(3), e0229463. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0229463. PMID: 32214355; PMCID: PMC7098593.

144. Richard, J.L.; Payne, G.A.; Desjardins, AE.; Maragos, C.; Norred, W.; Pestka, J. Mycotoxins: Risks in plant, animal and human systems. CAST Task Force Report 2003,139, 101–3.

145. Bennet, JW.; Klich, M. Mycotoxins. Clinical microbiology review, 2003, 16(3), 497–516. DOI: 10.1128/CMR.16.3.497-516.2003

146. Yumbe-Guevara, B.; Imoto, T.; Yoshizawa, T. Effects of heating procedures on deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone levels in naturally contaminated barley and wheat. Food Additives and Contaminants 2003, 20 (12), 1132–40. doi: Crossref.

147. Polak, M.; Paluszewski A.; Rybarczyk, L.; Gajęcki, M. Influence of zearalenone micotoxicosis on selected immunological, haematological and biochemical indexes of blood plasma in bitches. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2004, 7 (3), 175–80. doi: Crossref

148. Zwierzchowski, W.; Przybyłowicz, M.; Obremski, K.; Zielonka, L.; Skorska-Wyszyńska, E.; Gajecka, M., Polak, M.; Jakimiuk, E.; Jana, B.; Rybarczyk, L et al. Level of zearalenone in blood serum and lesions in ovarian follicles of sexually immature gilts in the course of zearalenone micotoxicosis. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2005, 8 (3), 209–18.

149. Rai, A.; Das, M.; Tripathi, A. Occurrence and toxicity of a fusarium mycotoxin, zearalenone. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2020, 60(16), 2710-2729. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2019.1655388. Epub 2019 Aug 26. PMID: 31446772.

150. Wang, Y.; Wong, T.Y.; Chan, F.L.; Chen, S.; Leung, L.K. Assessing the effect of food mycotoxins on aromatase by using a cell-based system. Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with Bibra 2014, 28 (4), 640–6. doi: Crossref.

151. Kuiper-Goodman, T.; Scott, P.M.; Watanabe, H. Risk assessment of the mycotoxin zearalenone. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 1987, 7, 253–306. 10.1016/0273-2300(87)90037-7 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

152. Abbès, S.; Salah-Abbès, J.B.; Ouanes, Z.; Houas, Z.; Othman, O.; Bacha H.; Abdel-Wahhab, M.A.; Oueslati, R. Preventive role of phyllosilicate clay on the immunological and biochemical toxicity of zearalenone in balb/c mice. International Immunopharmacology 2000, 6 (8), 1251–8. doi: Crossref.

153. Abbès, S.; Ouanes, Z.; Salah-Abbès J.B.; Abdel, W.A.; Oueslati, M.R.; Bacha, H. Preventive role of aluminosilicate clay against induction of micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in bone-marrow cells of balb/c mice treated with zearalenone. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 2007, 631 (2), 85–92. doi: Crossref.

154. Wang, Y.C.; Deng, J.L.; Xu S.W.; Peng, X.; Zuo, Z.C.; Cui, H.M.; Wang, Y.; Ren, Z.H. Effects of zearalenone on IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ mRNA levels in the splenic lymphocytes of chickens. Scientific World Journal 2012, 2012, 567327. doi: 10.1100/2012/567327. Epub 2012 May 2. PMID: 22645433; PMCID: PMC3354442.

155. Murata, H.; Sultana, P.; Shimada, N.; Yoshioka, M. Structure-activity relationships among zearalenone and its derivatives based on bovine neutrophil chemiluminescence. Veterinary and Human Toxicology 2003, 45 (1), 18–20.

156. Poor, M.; Kunsagi-Mate, S.; Sali, N.; Koszegi, T.; Szente ,L.; Peles-Lemli, B. Interactions of zearalenone with native and chemically modified cyclodextrins and their potential utilization. J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 2015, 151, 63–68. 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2015.07.009 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

157. Fink-Gremmels, J.; Malekinejad, H. Clinical effects and biochemical mechanisms associated with exposure to the mycoestrogen zearalenone. Animal Feed Science and Technology 2007, 137 (3–4, 1), 326-341.

158. Biehl, M.; Prelusky, D.; Koritz, G.; Hartin, K.; Buck, W.; Trenholm, H. Biliary excretion and enterohepatic cycling of zearalenone in immature pigs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1993, 121 (1), 152–9. doi: Crossref.

159. Sambuu, R.; Takagi, M.; Shiga, S.; Uno, S.; Kokushi, E.; Namula, Z et al. Detection of zearalenone and its metabolites in naturally contaminated porcine follicular fluid by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Reprod. Dev. 2011, 57, 303–306. 10.1262/ jrd.10-106M [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

160. Cortinovis, C.; Pizzo, F.; Spicer, L.J.; Caloni, F. Fusarium mycotoxins: effects on reproductive function in domestic animals–a review. Theriogenology 2013, 80, 557–564. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology.2013.06.018

161. Wang, H.W.; Wang, J.Q.; Zheng, B.Q.; Li ,SL.; Zhang, YD.; Li, FD.; Zheng, N. Cytotoxicity induced by ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and α-zearalenol: effects of individual and combined treatment. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014, 71, 217-24. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.05.032. Epub 2014 Jun 18. PMID: 24952310.

162. EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). Scientific Opinion on the risks for animal and public health related to the presence of Alternaria toxins in feed and food, 2011. https://doi.org/10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2407

163. GAIN. China releases standard for maximum levels of mycotoxins in foods (global agriculture information network). (China Food and Drug Administration) CFDA, GAIN report no. CH18026, 2018, 1–10.

164. Massart, F.; Meucci, V.; Saggese, G.; Soldani, G. High growth rate of girls with precocious puberty exposed to estrogenic mycotoxins. J Pediatr. 2008, 152(5), 690-695.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2007.10.020. Epub 2008 Feb 20. PMID: 18410776.

165. Kuciel-Lisieska, G.; Obremski, K.; Stelmachów, J.; Gajecka, M.; Zielonka, Ł.; Jakimiuk, E.; Gajecki, M. Presence of zearalenone in blood plasma in women with neoplastic lesions in the mammary gland. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 2008, 52, 671–674.

166. Tomaszewski, J.; Miturski, R.; Semczuk, A.; Kotarski, J.; Jakowicki, J. Tissue zearalenone concentration in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic human endometrium. Ginekologia Polska. 1998, 69 (5), 363–6.

167. Minervini, F., and Dell0Aquila, M. E. Zearalenone and reproductive function in farm animals. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2008, 9, 2570–2584. doi: 10.3390/ ijms9122570

168. Zinedine, A.; Soriano, J. M.; Molto, J. C.; and Manes, J. Review on the toxicity, occurrence, metabolism, detoxification, regulations and intake of zearalenone: An oestrogenic mycotoxin. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2007, 45 (1), 1–18

169. Weaver, G.A.; Kurtz, H.J.; Behrens, J.C.; Robison, T.S.; Seguin, B.E.; Bates, F.Y et al. Effect of zearalenone on the fertility of virgin dairy heifers. Am. J. Vet. Res. 1986, 47, 1395–1397

170. Obremski, K.; Gajecki, M.; Zwierzchowski, W.; Zielonka, L.; Otrocka-Domagala, I.; Rotkiewicz, T. et al. Influence of zearalenone on reproductive system cell proliferation in gilts. Pol. J. Vet. Sci. 2003, 6, 239–245.

171. Etienne, M.; Dourmad, J.Y. Effects of zearalenone or glucosinolates in the diet on reproduction in sows: A review. Livest. Prod. Sci. 1994, 40, 99–113. doi: 10.1016/0301-6226(94)90040-X

172. Malekinejad, H.; Maas-Bakker, R.; Fink-Gremmels, J. Species differences in the hepatic biotransformation of zearalenone. Vet J. 2006, 172(1), 96-102. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2005.03.004. PMID: 15907386.

173. Zhang, G.L.; Feng, Y.L.; Song, J.L.; Zhou, X.S. Zearalenone: A Mycotoxin with Different Toxic Effect in Domestic and Laboratory Animals’ Granulosa Cells. Front Genet. 2018, 18, 9:667. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00667. PMID: 30619484; PMCID: PMC6305301.

174. Yang, J.Y.; Wang, G.X.; Liu, JL.; Fan, JJ.; Cui, S. Toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives α-zearalenol on male reproductive system in mice. Reproductive Toxicology 2007, 24 (3-4), 381–7. doi: Crossref.

175. Ito, Y.; Ohtsubo, K. Effects of neonatal administration of zearalenone on the reproductive physiology of female mice. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 1994, 56, 1155–1159. doi: 10.1292/jvms.56.1155

176. Teixeira, L.C.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Dittrich, R.; Santin, E. Effects of zearalenone in prepubertal gilts. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 2011, 31(8), 656-662

177. Logrieco, A.; Mule, G.; Moretti, A.; Bottalico, A. Toxigenic Fusarium Species and Mycotoxins Associated with Maize Ear Rot in Europe. Eur J Plant Pathol 2002, 108, 597- 609.

178. Desjardins, A. E.; Maragos, C. M.; Proctor, R. H. Maize Ear Rot and Moniliformin Contamination by Cryptic Species of Fusarium subglutinans. J Agric Food Chem 2006, 54, 7383-7390.

179. Kokkonen, M.; Ojala, L.; Parikka, P.; Jestoi, M. Mycotoxin production of selected Fusarium species at different culture conditions. Int J Food Microbiol 2010, 143, 17-25.

180. Hallas-Moeller, M.; Nielsen, K. F.; Frisvad, J. C. Production of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Moniliformin by Penicillium melanoconidium. J Agric Food Chem 2016, 64, 4505-4510.

181. Jonsson, M.; Jestoi, M.; Nathanail, A.V.; Kokkonen, U.M.; Anttila, M.; Koivisto, P.; Karhunen, P.; Peltonen, K. Application of OECD Guideline 423 in assessing the acute oral toxicity of moniliformin. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013, 53, 27-32. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.11.023. Epub 2012 Nov 28. PMID: 23201451.

182. Burmeister, H.; Ciegler, A.; Vesonder, R.F. Moniliformin, a metabolite of Fusarium moniliforme NRRL 6322: purification and toxicity. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37, 11–13.

183. Ueno, Y. Developments in food science. Gen. Toxicol. 1983, 4, 135–146.

184. Nagaraj, R.Y.; Wu, W.; Will, J.A.; Vesonder, R.F. Acute cardiotoxicity of moniliformin in broiler chickens as measured by electrocardiography. Avian Dis. 1996, 40, 223–227

185. Kriek, N.P.J.; Marasas, W.F.O.; Steyn, P.S.; Van Rensburg, S.J.; Steyn M.; Toxicity of a moniliformin-producing strain of Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans isolated from maize. Food Cosmet. Toxicol. 1977, 15, 579–587

186. Nesic, K.; Ivanovic, S.; Nesic, V. Fusarial toxins: secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014, 228, 101-20. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-01619-1_5. PMID: 24162094.

187. Burka, L.T.; Doran, J.; Wilson, B. J. Enzyme inhibition and the toxic action of moniliformin and other vinylogous α-ketoacids. Biochem Pharmacol. 1982, 31, 79-84.

188. Gathercole, P. S.; Thiel, P. G.; Hofmeyr, J. H. S. Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by moniliformin. Biochem J. 1986, 233, 719-723

189. Cao, J.; Zhang, A.; Yang, B.; Zhang, Z.T.; Fu, Q.; Hughes, C.E.; Caterson, B. The effect of fungal moniliformin toxin and selenium supplementation on cartilage metabolism in vitro. Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2007, 15(Suppl. 3), C108.

190. Jonsson, M.; Atosuo, J.; Jestoi, M.; Nathanail, A.V.; Kokkonen, U.M.; Anttila, M.; Koivisto, P.; Lilius, E.M.; Peltonen, K. Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study of moniliformin in rats. Toxicol. Lett. 2015, 233, 38-44.

191. Sharma, D.; Asrani, R.K.; Ledoux, D.R.; Rottinghaus, G.E.; Gupta, V.K. Toxic interaction between fumonisin B1 and moniliformin for cardiac lesions in Japanese quail. Avian Dis. 2012, 56, 545-554.

192. Stoev, S.; Denev, S.; Dutton, M.; Nkosi, B. Cytotoxic Effect of Some Mycotoxins and their Combinations on Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells as Measured by the MTT Assay. The Open Toxinology Journal, 2009, 2, 1-8

193. Domijan, A.M.; Gajski, G.; Novak Jovanović, I.; Gerić, M.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V. In vitro genotoxicity of mycotoxins ochratoxin A and fumonisin B(1) could be prevented by sodium copper chlorophyllin–implication to their genotoxic mechanism. Food Chem. 2015, 170:455-62. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.08.036. Epub 2014 Aug 19. PMID: 25306371.

194. Heussner, A.H.; Bingle, L.E. Comparative Ochratoxin Toxicity: A Review of the Available Data. Toxins (Basel). 2015, 7(10), 4253-82. doi: 10.3390/toxins7104253. PMID: 26506387; PMCID: PMC4626733.

195. Khan, M.A.; Asrani, R.K.; Iqbal, A.; Patil, R.D. Fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A nephrotoxicity in Japanese quail: An ultrastructural assessment. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2013, 22(5), 835–843.

196. Klarić, M.S.; Rašić, D.; Peraica, M. Deleterious effects of mycotoxin combinations involving ochratoxin A. Toxins (Basel) 2013, 5(11), 1965-87. doi: 10.3390/toxins5111965. PMID: 24189375; PMCID: PMC3847710.

197. Li, X.; Zhao, L.; Fan, Y.; Jia, Y.; Sun, L.; Ma, S. et al. Occurrence of mycotoxins in feed ingredients and complete feeds obtained from the Beijing region of China. J. Anim. Sci. Biotechnol. 2014, 5, 37. 10.1186/2049-1891-5-37 [PMC free article] [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar]

198. Indresh, H. C.; Umakantha, B. Effects of ochratoxin and T-2 toxin combination on performance, biochemical and immune status of commercial broilers. Veterinary World 2013, EISSN: 2231-0916

199. Xue, H. L.; Bi, Y.; Wei, J. M.; Tang, Y. M.; Zhao, Y.; & Wang, Y. New method for the simultaneous analysis of types a and B trichothecenes by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in potato tubers inoculated with Fusarium sulphureum. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2013, 61, 9333–9338.

200. Wangikar, P.; Sinha, N.; Dwivedi, P.K.; Sharma, A. K. Teratogenic effects of ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 alone and in combination on post-implantation rat embryos in culture. Turkish-German Gynecol Assoc. 2007, 8(4)

201. Javed, T.; Bunte, RM.; Dombrink-Kurtzman, MA.; Richard, JL.; Bennett, GA.; Côté, LM.; Buck, WB. Comparative pathologic changes in broiler chicks on feed amended with Fusarium proliferatum culture material or purified fumonisin B1 and moniliformin. Mycopathologia. 2005, 159(4), 553-64. doi: 10.1007/s11046-005-4518-9. PMID: 15983742.

202. Luongo, D.; Severino, L.; Bergamo, P.; De Luna, R.; Lucisano, A.; Rossi, M. Interactive effects of fumonisin B1 and alpha-zearalenol on proliferation and cytokine expression in Jurkat T cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006, 20(8):1403-10. doi: 10.1016/j.tiv.2006.06.006. Epub 2006 Jun 30. PMID: 16899350.

203. Szabó, A.; Szabó-Fodor, J.; Fébel, H.; Romvári, R.; Kovács, M. Individual and combined haematotoxic effects of fumonisin B(1) and T-2 mycotoxins in rabbits. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014, 72, 257-64. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2014.07.025. Epub 2014 Aug 1. PMID: 25092395.

204. Wan, L.Y.; Turner, P.C.; El-Nezami, H. Individual and combined cytotoxic effects of Fusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins B1) on swine jejunal epithelial cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013, 57, 276-83. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.03.034. Epub 2013 Apr 4. PMID: 23562706.

205. Kouadio, J.H.; Dano, S.D.; Moukha, S.; Mobio, T.A.; Creppy, E.E. Effects of combinations of Fusarium mycotoxins on the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis, malondialdehyde levels, DNA methylation and fragmentation, and viability in Caco-2 cells. Toxicon 2007, 49(3), 306-17. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2006.09.029. Epub 2006 Oct 11. PMID: 17109910.

206. Pleadin, J.; Frece, J.; Markov, K. Mycotoxins in food and feed. Adv Food Nutr Res. 2019; 89:297-345. doi: 10.1016/bs.afnr.2019.02.007. Epub 2019 Mar 6. PMID: 31351529.

 



Micotoxicosis prevention
Sign up